Journalists from the Tampa Bay Times recently explored a question asked by a reader, “Where does my used wastewater go?”. For people not in the industry, this is not a topic that is often pondered and can result in ignorance about harmful flushing behavior *ahem, wet wipes*.
So where does it go? An education coordinator of a water reclamation facility in the St. Petersburg FL area says that most children they tour around the facility think of the movie Finding Nemo and believe there is a pipe from their house straight into the ocean. She explains to the students that once you flush, the contents join up when they reach the city’s pipes and head into a treatment facility. On average there are 22 million gallons that flow through the facility daily. The sewage heads into the pump station first where the trash is turned into tiny pieces and then fed to the headworks screens to trap the trash from going any further. Contrary to popular belief, the part of the tour that is the smelliest is the screened out trash because it’s a large dumpster full of rotting trash, heavily laced with wet wipes and other non-flushables. The next stop is the “teacups” which spin quickly, sending the heavier contents of the sludge to the bottom. The heavier contents are sent to the dumpster and the liquid is sent further down the line. At this point, if the facility is treating the water into drinking water, the process is more extensive to remove all microbes and other substances, but for this facility, the water is being used for irrigation purposes and the microbes are kept in to remove the nitrogen in the anoxic tanks. After the nitrogen is removed, the water heads through aeration tanks and then over to large round tanks with a massive “arm” that removes any additional heavy solids for future use as fertilizer. Once the water is clear it is disinfected and sent to large tanks to be sent off a lawn, car wash or decorative fountain near you!
Click here to read more about the process of wastewater treatment here.
Hemp based goods are catching on like wildfire in countries around the world as a new eco friendly alternative to paper based products. Not only is it a popular alternative now, some consumers even report preferring the products over the paper based options. Did you know? Before the use of trees for toilet paper, Hemp was actually the choice material! So what makes Hemp far superior to regular toilet paper and how does it apply to us today? Well, with the increase in fatbergs and sewage clogging materials, hemp actually provides monumental benefits – its more resilient AND its fibers break down much more easily when flushed and best of all, it doesn’t contribute to deforestation. Toilet paper manufacturers have even hopped on the bandwagon and began creating Hemp lines in their product offerings in stores. Interested in hearing more about the benefits of hemp vs regular paper? Check it out.
For the rest of the world that is stuck in the dark ages using wet wipes and destroying sewers and wastewater treatment plants worldwide, there’s Muffin Monster grinders. Check out JWC‘s full arsenal of Wipes Ready sewage grinders ready to tackle your biggest fatbergs and keep pipes free and clear.
California lawmakers are taking big steps to save their pipes from wipes. Written by Assemblyman Richard Bloom of Santa Monica, Assembly Bill 1672 states that disposable ‘non-woven’ products in California would need to be labeled appropriately – that means that all products such as wet wipes, baby wipes, hygienic wipes, etc. would need to alert consumers that they are not to be flushed.
Of course, this bill has not come not without backlash. “Flushable” wipes manufacturers are clapping back at the bill saying that their wipes are not to blame for sewer issues or any environmental impact. Assemblyman Bloom listened to these concerns and worked together with the companies to re-word the language as it was argued to be “too specific”. Bloom is hopeful that new amendments will be added in the coming months to help the bill be effective on the current wipes issue.
The Environmental Services Department in Arcata, CA issued a press release on October 20th following a dramatic increase in sewage clogs last year. The press releases stated, “Thirty percent of sewage overflows in Arcata last year were caused by residents flushing disposable wipes, such as sanitary wipes, baby wipes or household cleaning wipes, down the toilet.”
Service officials issuing the press release warn that even though a wipe is labeled as flushable it can still get caught in sewage pipes. Additionally, they don’t disintegrate as well as normal toilet paper does. Nasty clogs can cause overflows into backyards and homes and require a plumber to extract the mass.
Not only do the wet wipes harm residential properties but the ones that make it all the way to the treatment facilities still end up doing severe damage to waste water treatment plants that aren’t equipped with machines like sewage grinders and screens. Clogs at wastewater treatment facilities are extremely costly and require a staggering amount of labor to remove and deal with each day. Not to mention, when a pipe becomes clogged at the treatment plant, it requires servicing which can send it out of commission for a period of time.
Read the press release here. Learn more about sewage grinders here.
Guardian Australia visits wastewater treatment plants around the country to uncover the struggle everyone is dealing with: Wet Wipes and non-flushables.
Left: Interviewers for Guardian took a trip to Sydney Water for a look inside the wastewater facility and how they deal with the wipes problem. Luke Justus, a Process Controller for Sydney Water discusses the frustration of wipes clogs: “The first indication we’ll get is that we will suddenly have three or four screens fail on the master control system, we send people down to look, we open the hatch and just see crap; wipes and sewage and congealed fatty material all tangled around each other and tangled around the screen so the only way to deal with it is manually so it’s people with claws and rakes and shovels trying to get this stuff out.”
Right: Staff for the Guardian show FOG encrusted piping during a plant tour at Malabar Wastewater Treatment. Operators at the plant stress that the hard mass of FOG and wipes narrows the piping and is extremely difficult to remove, causing hours of manual labor to chip away and clear the debris.
The City of Fargo’s crews were recently alerted by a system sensor at the lift station that there was a problem. Crews worked to figure out what was triggering the sensor when they came across the source of the issue: a massive ball of unflushables, including wet wipes, that had been blocking up the system. Crew members snapped photos in disbelief of the large mass they worked to clear from the lift station. The following statement was posted on the City of Fargo’s Facebook page:
“An old saying goes something like “what comes up, must go down.” At #Fargo Wastewater Department, the team prefers to say “what goes down, must come out somewhere.” These pictures are not showing a giant hairball; rather, they show a collection of items that shouldn’t be flushed down the toilet and accumulated on sanitary lift station #25. These instances occur when non-flushables are disposed of improperly into our sewer system. Fortunately, The City of Fargo utilizes sensors and other methods to alert our team members when systems are not operating at full capacity. Team Fargo responded to address the issue in restoring the system’s ability to handle peak capacity flows. Learn more about Wastewater Department operations athttp://fargond.gov/wastewater.”
The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, or ACCC for short, recently took Kimberly-Clark to federal court over the claims that their wipes are ‘flushable’ and safe for sewer systems. The ACCC argued that the label misleads consumers into thinking that the products are able to breakdown once flushed, just like toiler paper. Unfortunately, the court ruled in favor of Kimberly-Clark due to a lack of evidence to prove that wipes products had contributed to the problems in municipal sewage systems.
The outcome of the case greatly upset environmental and advocacy groups across Australia, especially considering the detriment the country’s wastewater systems have endured due to unflushables in the piping.
After the hearing, Head of Campaigns and Policy at CHOICE has stepped in to keep warning Australians about the dangers of flushing wipes. CHOICE applauded the ACCC for ‘taking on tough cases like this and a strong consumer regulator will have wins and losses along the way’.
Continue reading the latest about the issue, here.
Markham’s Councillor, Jack Heath, is ready to start cracking down on all products marketed as “flushable”. According to the article, the products are clogging sewers and costing the region $1 million per year to remove. Heath was noted saying the he knows the move will be controversial and require a lot of work but he wants to take the steps in hopes that others will follow.
“Of course, we’ll create a court case. Of course we’ll be into matters of (critics saying), ‘You have no jurisdiction’ etc., etc., and it will be on the front page,” Heath said. “And, quickly, Toronto, Vancouver and Montreal and other bigger organizations will weigh in and say, ‘We have this problem, too.’ I think that’s the only way to make a step forward on this.” – Jack Heath, Markham Councillor
To kickoff the movement, Heath proposes banning flushable items from stores. The Environmental Services commissioner, Erin Mahoney, says that there are a bundle of products being poured down sinks and flushed that shouldn’t – like fats, oils, grease, feminine hygiene products, etc. – but perhaps the most troubling is the wet wipe because they are falsely sold as being safe to flush.
“Improperly disposing of these items can block pipes and bind pumps, causing damage and sewage backups, resulting in increased maintenance costs along with health, safety and environmental risks.” – Erin Mahoney, Environmental Services commissioner
Local community members, including student volunteers, have come up with a clever way to catch the public eye. This weekend, the Androscoggin Valley Stormwater Working Group and many others gathered for a municipal stormwater drainage system discussion and then began making their way through the town using stencils to create works of art on storm drains.
“This stenciling event is in effort to help educate the public of this process and to remind them not to dump down the drain.” – Androscoggin Valley Soil & Water Conservation District
Efforts of the project also reinforce to the public that illegal dumping into storm drains and sewers has a mass negative impact on the ocean and community.
“The Androscoggin Valley Soil and Water Conservation District will be joined by the City of Lewiston as we lead a troop of girl scouts on a mission to stencil storm water drains with messages warning people what not to throw down there!” – Androscoggin Valley Soil & Water Conservation District Facebook page
Wipes aren’t just damaging to our sewers. They are polluting our oceans, too.
According to Jackson Reece, a plant-based baby wipe manufacturer, wipes are to blame for 93% of the UK’s sewer blockages. But that isn’t all that’s effected by the products; our oceans are in danger, too. Jackson Reece recently partnered with the Dublin Aquarium Sea Life Bray to show visitors the true impact of wet wipe use and the harm the flushing wipes causes to oceans. The video also states that 99% of wipes produced and sold today are created with polyester material, which is plastic and not biodegradable – despite flushable claims.
“All parents can agree that they want the best possible future for the kids, and that can be possible if we change up our buying habits, such as plastic-infused wipes for biodegradable.” – Jackson Reece
As efforts ramp up to knock out sewage clogs caused by wet wipes, the disposable wipe market continues to grow by leaps and bounds.
So which wipes are predicted to grow the most? Let’s first break down how wipes are segmented in the market: According to a study from the Market Research Gazette, the global flushable wipes market is divided by application and region. In terms of application, the wipes market is separated into a couple different categories, for example: cosmetic, personal care, medical, etc. The personal care segment can be broken down further, as products like baby wipes, feminine wipes and antibacterial hand wipes all fall under this category.
Researchers forecast that the personal care wipes are expected to launch the wipes market and contribute to its overall steady revenue growth for the period. Another growing segment is the feminine hygiene wipes, which lives under the personal care category. The article notes that increased convenience for quick hygiene maintenance and a push in marketing these specific product segments are the largest contributing factors for the market growth and success of the overall global wipes industry.
“Pee and Poo” are the new mascots of Metro Vancouver! Stationed throughout the area, their campaign is to educate residents about what not to flush down the toilet in order to reduce costs for the municipality.
A Ryerson University study even put 101 “flushable” products to the test and found that only 11 were appropriate. And they were all different kinds of toilet paper.
In the April 2019 issue of Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine, wastewater industry experts weigh in on new regulations put in place for flushability claims made on the labels of wet wipes.
So, what’s the verdict? It’s a toss up. Some wastewater operators in Canada are pleased with this step forward for the industry saying that they believe these new specifications on wipes labeled as “flushable” will begin to help reduce the cost and headache of blocked sewer pipes across the country. On the other hand, these new regulations aren’t stringent enough for the rest of the industry experts. The experts point out that the governing association that created the regulations – INDA and EDANA, both profit from non-woven fabric and wet wipes industry sales.
Wipes are created from a combination of natural and manmade fibers to make up a nonwoven sheet. The components include: cellulose, cotton, regenerated cellulose, polyester and high-density polyethylene. There are two ways to fabricate the materials into the end product; the first way is by mixing the materials at various ratios through hydroentanglement, which is when high speed jets of water strike a web of fibers so that they knot around one another. The other way nonwovens are created is with heat. The materials are mixed when the polymer is heated to a high temperature when extruded through small nozzles while hot air is being blown. The resulting products of each method is a material that has a very high wet-strength.
Even with the new specifications and reports of “flushable” wipes, research has concluded the even these wipes still don’t mimic toilet paper, as they are too thick and retain too much strength to break down fully. On average, toilet paper loses 90% of its strength when wet while flushable wet wipes only lose about 29%.
For the next month, Yorkshire Water in Sheffield, UK is promoting it’s latest campaign for community engagement which aims to spread the message of the importance of looking after the sewer networks. As a part of the campaign they have sent out their eight-foot tall ‘Wipesaur” and anti-blockage packs for the public with things like kitchen sink strainers and shower hair catchers for the home. They encourage passers by to take a selfie with the friendly dino to share on social and further spread the word.
Yorkshire Water is sending out an eight-foot tall ‘Wipesaur’ dinosaur mascot to pound the streets of Sheffield to help educate residents about the problems wet wipes can cause to their local sewer system.
Every year, Yorkshire Water is called out to repair more than 30,000 sewer blockages across the region, costing £2.4 million with 40% of these blockages being caused by wet wipes flushed down toilets.
For the campaign, Yorkshire Water created a page dedicated to “Anti-blockage” information. The page highlights a challenge set forth by the water company that will award a lump sum of funds to groups located in “hot spot” areas for clogs. The groups/organizations in the hot spot areas are challenged to work together as a community to significantly reduce clogs caused by wipes.
Check out their anti-blockage campaign webpage here.
Barry Orr (pictured above) is a part of the research team at Ryerson Urban Water. Recently, Orr and his colleagues conducted a rigorous comprehensive study on single-use items commonly flushed down the toilet after use. The test aimed to decipher which of these products marketed as flushable are truly safe for the sewer systems.
Pictured below, the study ruled out which products failed to disintegrate when exposed to water during testing. 23 different “flushable” wipes were observed and of the bunch, NONE passed the test. 2 of the single-use products eventually partially broke down but the other 21 never broke down in the test.
Read more about the logistics of the test and how un-flushables are effecting sewers around the world each day: here.
Amid thousands of reports of clogged sewage systems from wet wipes and fatbergs comes a new (maybe?) knight and shining armor: European company, Natracare, has released a brand new wipe that claims to be plastic free and biodegradable. Water UK set in place a set of stringent “flushable” regulations and according to the “moist tissue” packaging, the product is safe to flush. While we don’t know the exact methods and tests that are conducted to test flushability, Water UK reported that after testing the Natracare moist tissue, they concluded that the product is “100 per cent paper tissue and plastic free, marine friendly and compostable”.
Could these be the answer to our prayers? Or are they too good to be true? Only time and more tests will tell!
Wessex Water Services, a water supply and sewage utility company in South West England, has a modest social media fan following. The company uses their platform to educate communities and spread the word about the detrimental effects that wet wipes have on sewer systems world wide.
After dealing with several previous hefty sewage clogs from the non-flushables, Wessex Water preached to the public that they do not break down and are not to be flushed. Despite these warnings, the company has recently been faced with another large clog in the system. They continue to share photos as the crews remove the mess of wipes from the system in order to further spread the word to stop flushing non-flushables.
“75% of sewer blockages are caused by disposable items, such as wet wipes, being flushed down the toilet. Our team recently came across these wet wipes in #Amesbury” – Wessex Water
Game of Thrones fans, rejoice! The City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada has created a clever spinoff of the HBO Drama series. Hamilton’s “Own Your Throne” depicts loyal toilet guardians, Richard the Turd and Sir Peeter defending their lair from unflushables seeking to destroy the kingdom.
The city has been dealing with an increase in sewage clogs from unflushable products being sent down the drains and has been focusing on educating the public about items that are actually ok to flush. The website offers a comprehensive list of unsuitable products for the sewer as well as articles that further explain what damages these items can cost when flushed.
A Northeast Florida community owned utility company, JEA, created a clever new video, “Invasion of the Fatbergs”, to educate the public on the harm that flushing non-flushables has on the sewage systems. The video is a spinoff of a horror film which shows a happy, perfect town being invaded by large sewer “creatures”.
On the landing page for the new video, JEA brings awareness to the materials that cause fatbergs, like baby wipes, paper towels, floss, feminine hygiene products, clumping cat litter, condoms, grease, oil, and cooking fat.
“Remember, what goes down might just come back up.” – Invasion of the Fatbergs
Wet wipe manufacturers in the UK will now be able to display a “Fine to Flush” logo on their packages if they pass strict new tests set in place by the Scottish Water Industry. Although the specifics of the scientific tests were not mentioned, industry officials state that the new label will let consumers know which specific wet wipes do not contain plastic and are (supposedly) safe to flush.
The new standard came after massive fatbergs have been surfacing throughout the UK, making news headlines and bringing awareness to the issue across the globe. According to Scottish Water, they reportedly encounter a whopping 95 FOG clogs per day, costing them millions per year to clear from sewer systems.
“We all have a part to play in looking after the water cycle. Anything which encourages people to think about their responsibility is welcome. Our sewer response teams deal with the consequences of people flushing the wrong items down the toilet – items like wipes, cotton buds and sanitary products – on a daily basis. We hope this new official industry Fine to Flush standard will help cut consumer confusion and lead to a reduction in blockages.” – Peter Farrer, Scottish Water COO
Stuart Magoon, Assistant Division Manager of Environmental Services with the City of Tacoma, Washington was recently interviewed by K5 News about the damages that wet wipes are causing in residential and city sewer systems. In the video, Magoon shows K5 News the Bar Screen at their facility which runs 24/7 to pull debris out of the sewer line that won’t make it through the treatment process. The plant spends about $100,000 each year to deal with the problem – which consists of collecting, cleaning and disposing of all the debris. He also explains that not only is city infrastructure at risk, but so are individual homes. By flushing non-flushable wet wipes and putting grease and oil down drains, homeowners are taking a gamble with the health of their sewer piping. When asked why wet wipes aren’t flushable, Magoon states that they aren’t biodegradable and when they mix with other things in the sewer they cause a huge problem.
Outfitted with shovels and pickaxes, crews spend 8 weeks tackling a monster blob of wet-wipes and grease in South West England sewers.
Charlie Ewart, the lucky finder of the smelly mass of wipes and grease, weighs in on the moment he came across the fatberg, “I saw it and thought: ‘What on earth?’ It was completely unexpected,” Ewart said. “It’s really eerie in that bit of the sewer and it does look like something out of a horror scene, all congealed and glossy and matted together with all kinds of things.”
Ewart discovered the mass below the elegant seafront town of Sidmouth. The 64-meter mess was found stuck in the sewage holding tank, which was built in the Victorian era. At the end of the Esplanade lies the pumping station in which the sewage flows to after passing through the holding tank. The holding tank has been brewing the mass for an estimated 2 years, and people of the area have reported that it has caused a smell to surface.
South West Water’s director of wastewater, Andrew Roantree stated that they were used to dealing with clogs from flushed items like condoms, nappies and sanitary products, but the introduction of the wet-wipe to the sewers was a whole new ball game. “The proliferation of wet wipe-type products has started to generate a real problem,” said Roantree. “The wet wipes tend to create a matrix that all these other things get caught up in.” In a kind of snowball effect, the wet wipes congeal with fats, oil and grease, gradually forming a hard mass.
Aldi, an Australian Supermarket chain, has slashed its plans to sell wet wipes marked as “flushable” after the ACCC (Australian Competition and Consumer Commission) and Aldi shoppers raised concern about the product’s ability to break down in the sewer.
The concern began when Aldi released its “Special Buys” list of upcoming deals which included the “Green Action flushable wet wipe”. Aldi customers took to Facebook to voice their concerns about the Supermarket selling wet wipes marked as “flushable”, noting that wet wipes are a hazard to the wastewater process. News Corp Australia spoke with Aldi representatives and the company responded, “While there is currently no Australian standard for flushability, this product has been tested to the EDINA and INDA International guidelines, passing flushability and biodegradability tests.” However, they decided to not release the product in stores as they worked with the ACCC on a solution.
“The ACCC is already pursuing alleged misleading ‘flushable’ claims more generally, with two proceedings currently before the Federal Court against Pental and Kimberly-Clark Australia Pty Ltd.”
Sonoma Water’s Environmental Services Division implements Pollution Prevention and Source Control programs
After seeing an increase in wastewater clogs in Northern California, Sonoma Water’s Environmental Services Division has implemented pollution prevention and control programs focusing on major culprits of detrimental sewage clogs for wastewater treatment plants and aging pipes, as well as major water polluters. The initiative focuses on key areas such as FOG or Fats, Oils and Grease, Safe Medicine Disposal, Pest Management, Hazardous Waste Disposal, and several others specifically geared towards commercial pollution from companies and businesses. The new programs bring light to wastewater and water issues and aim to educate the general public about resources available to them to reduce and eliminate harmful environmental impacts.
“The aim of these programs is to keep our treatment facilities in regulatory compliance and prevent pollutants from reaching our waterways through Sonoma Water facilities. We do this by providing outreach and education to the users of our facilities and by conducting inspections, reviewing building plans and requiring pretreatment at industrial and commercial facilities.”